This course is devoted to the current state of rapidly developing areas of nanotechnology, material science, biophysics and others. It discusses the modern techniques of nano- and microparticle synthesis and their stabilization via polymer coating. Moreover, the methods of nano- and microparticles characterization such as electron and optical microscopy, dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler anemometry and others will be presented. As a major part of this course, application of different discussed materials in biology, medicine, optics etc. will be reviewed. Additionally, the general introduction in a “Lab-on-a-chip” concept will be explained.